Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Welcomes Mongolia’s Efforts to Promote Human Rights in Business Activities , Asks About Measures to Combat Poverty
The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights today concluded its consideration of the fifth periodic report of Mongolia, with Committee Experts commending Mongolia’s efforts to promote human rights in business activities and asking questions about measures to combat poverty.
A Committee Expert said that he appreciated the State party’s efforts on drafting the national action plan on business and human rights. Such a plan would help to implement measures to reduce bribery, corruption and harmful development practices, another Expert added. When would that action plan be adopted?
Ludovic Hennebel, Committee Expert and country rapporteur, raised the issue of the poverty rate, saying that in certain regions, around half of the population lived below the poverty line. What measures were in place to combat poverty? Why had the poverty level not been reduced, despite the good economic growth over the last 15 years, another Expert asked?
Gombosuren Unurbayar, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation, introducing the report, said that the poverty rate in Mongolia was 27.8 per cent in 2020, 0.6 percentage points lower than the 2018 level. The Government was working to reduce poverty, but its efforts had been hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a national programme on reducing poverty and supporting employment. Interventions focused on sectors and regions in which there was high unemployment, supporting people individually to find employment.
In response to questions, the delegation explained that the State was planning to localise the United Nations’ guiding principles on business and human rights, and educate businesses on the link between their activities and human rights. The Government aimed to finish consultations on the national action plan on business and human rights by the end of 2022 and adopt the plan next year.
Mr. Unurbayar, in concluding remarks, said that the delegation had explained how the recommendations of the Committee had been reflected in domestic legislation, the achievements that the State party had made in implementing the provisions of the Covenant, and the challenges faced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The State party would continue to reflect the Committee’s recommendations in national legislation.
Mohamed Ezzeldin Abdel-Moneim, Committee Chair, in concluding remarks, thanked the delegation for positively responding to the Committee’s observations. He wished the State party success in upholding the provisions of the Covenant.
The delegation of Mongolia was comprised of representatives of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection; the Ministry of Health; the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; the Ministry of Education and Science; the Ministry of Culture; the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Light Industry; the Ministry of Digital Development and Communications; the Ministry of Mining and Heavy Industry; the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs; the Ministry of Energy; the Ministry of Environment and Tourism; the Ministry of Construction and Urban Development; the Ministry of Road Transport Development; the Independent Authority Against Corruption; the General Agency for Specialized Inspection; and the Permanent Mission of Mongolia to the United Nations Office at Geneva.
All the documents relating to the Committee’s work, including reports submitted by States parties, can be found on the session’s webpage . Webcasts of the meetings of the session can be found here, and meetings summaries can be found here.
The Committee will next meet in public at 4 p.m., Wednesday 28 September to conclude its consideration of the sixth periodic report of El Salvador (E/C.12/SLV/6).
The Committee has before it the fifth periodic report of Mongolia (E/C.12/MNG/5).
Presentation of Report
GOMBOSUREN UNURBAYAR, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation, said Mongolia had paid special attention to protecting the health of its citizens, reducing the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on society and the economy. The State had developed a comprehensive plan aimed at economic recovery and health protection amid the pandemic. Measures implemented included doubling the coverage of monthly food vouchers and increasing their value by 20 per cent; raising welfare payments for children, citizens with disabilities and the elderly by over 50 per cent; increasing the monthly child allowance five-fold; providing one-time financial support to every citizen and supporting affected businesses; implementing a low-interest, long-term loan programme for manufacturing and service enterprises and citizens; and cancelling energy, heat, water, and waste charges for all households and enterprises.
The poverty rate in Mongolia was 27.8 per cent in 2020, 0.6 percentage points lower than the 2018 level. That was supported by the State’s "Vision-2050" policy action plan for the country's long-term development, which aimed to reduce poverty, support employment, and ensure sustainable social and economic growth. The State had also approved a "New Recovery Policy" last year to overcome the economic difficulties after the COVID-19 pandemic and to expand the economy. That policy consisted of six recovery areas: port, energy, industrial, urban and rural, green growth, and State productivity recovery. In that context, the State was preparing new bills such as a law on corporate and personal income tax, law on the civil service, law on the suspension of certain types of controls and inspections, and a law on investments.
The State had created an action plan for the implementation of the Committee’s recommendations related to Mongolia’s fourth periodic report, and all available resources had been mobilised. During the reporting period, laws on the rights, participation, protection of population groups, health, employment, and safe food were approved and implemented. The law on the National Human Rights Commission was revised under the Paris Principles, and the number of its members was increased from three to five. The State had also approved the law on the legal status of human rights defenders in 2021, which defined and protected the legal status of human rights defenders, and regulated the structure, organization, and activities of the Human Rights Defenders Committee.
The law of the courts of Mongolia and the law on information transparency had been approved. In addition, the labour law was revised in 2021 following recommendations from the Committee. The revised law ensured the participation of civil society partner organizations; established part-time work and remote work regulations; ensured the right to unionise; and restricted forced labour, discrimination, child labour, and overly long working hours. The migration law was also revised in 2021 to protect human rights and legal interests in labour migration from Mongolia to foreign countries and from foreign countries to Mongolia.
Projects and measures for reorganizing, building, and connecting to engineering infrastructure in urban and rural areas were being implemented in stages. Mongolia had also approved policies and action plans to intensify the fight against corruption, such as the 2016 National Anti-Corruption Program. That project included events and activities to prevent corruption risks in public institutions, the official and the private sector, and civil society. Those efforts were proof that the Government of Mongolia was making great efforts to fully implement the recommendations of the Committee.
Questions by Committee Experts
LUDOVIC HENNEBEL, Committee Expert and country rapporteur, said that Mongolia took multilateralism seriously, having broadly ratified several human rights treaties. However, treaties such as the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families; the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees; and the 1954 and 1961 Conventions on statelessness had yet to be ratified. Why was that? What measures had the State taken to implement the Covenant in domestic law? Was the Covenant evoked by judges? What measures were being taken to raise awareness about the Committee’s mechanism for receiving individual complaints?
What safeguards were in place to ensure the due diligence of businesses? What measures were taken to assess the environmental impact of mining, industrial and energy projects? The activities of businesses polluted the land, air and water, and jeopardised the livelihoods of nomadic peoples. Mining in particular caused serious environmental problems and pollution. What measures were being taken to address that?
What tools were in place to combat corruption? A new law seeking to protect human rights defenders had been released. What limits were imposed on human rights defenders’ freedom of expression?
What measures had the State party taken to combat discrimination against women, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons? Had the State worked to combat stereotypes and ensure that those persons had access to healthcare, education and justice? What steps had the State taken to promote equality of wages between men and women, and to increase women’s representation in public institutions? What steps had been taken to combat sexual and gender-based violence? What measures had the State party taken to prohibit virginity tests, which were reportedly still conducted in Mongolia?
In certain regions, around half of the population lived below the poverty line. What measures were in place to combat poverty?
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said that the basic rights covered in the treaties which the State had not ratified were covered by its Constitution and other human rights treaties. The State ensured the rights of stateless persons and asylum seekers. Mongolia had yet to ratify those treaties due to its unique geopolitical situation. A working group had been established to review the gaps between domestic legislation and international treaties. That group had identified gaps and challenges for the implementation of the Convention, such as judges’ awareness of international treaties, and the State would work to address those. The Government was carefully considering ways of implementing the Committee’s recommendations. The State was educating lawyers and judges to apply the articles of relevant international treaties in their decisions.
A law had been adopted last year on human rights defenders. A cabinet supporting and regulating the operations of human rights defenders had been established under that law. An action plan on ensuring businesses upheld human rights would be released next year.
Mongolia had a unique foreign policy, which clearly stipulated that it was a neutral State that cooperated multilaterally with all stakeholders.
GOMBOSUREN UNURBAYAR, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation, said that the laws of Mongolia prohibited discrimination in all forms. The revised labour law prohibited workplace discrimination. All citizens had the right to due process in courts. A regulation regarding equal pay for equal work had been implemented. A law to ensure the social protection of herder women had been released. Programmes developed to support the employment of herder women were being implemented successfully. Social protection allowances had increased for all citizens. Senior pensions had also been increased, as had social security allowances for other targeted groups.
The delegation said that the State in 2020 had stopped conducting involuntary virginity tests. Adolescent girls would only be screened in schools if parents agreed. The State was working to improve health services provided to adolescent girls and protect their privacy. There had only been one case since 2020 when a virginity test had been conducted without parents’ permission.
Legislation on corruption had been revised and State agencies’ progress on eliminating corruption was monitored. Public servants were trained on combatting corruption. The number of corruption cases being investigated had increased three-fold since 2015. Public sector work had been digitised to improve transparency. Citizens and journalists could access data on the public sector and monitor the sector’s activities. The State was working with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime and other international agencies, expanding cooperation to combat corruption.
Several laws were in place guaranteeing the right to freedom of expression. A committee for the protection of human rights defenders had been established. If human rights defenders defamed or jeopardised the liberty of others, they were sanctioned. Otherwise, their activities were not limited.
Environmental impact assessments were conducted on all mining sector activities. Public consultations were held with herders and affected communities. A law on whistle-blowers had been drafted to protect those persons. Measures had been undertaken to combat pollution from mining projects. Inspections were carried out, and development licences could be revoked in cases of serious pollution.
Internal migration to urban areas was increasing. In response to that, the Government was working to increase salaries in rural areas. A fund had been established to support movement of citizens to rural areas. Favourable loans were provided to business projects established in rural areas. A registration programme for welfare recipients had been established to identify and support recipients living in rural areas.
Each political party had clauses for promoting women’s participation in the election process. Quotas for female representation had been established.
Follow-Up Questions by Committee Experts
LUDOVIC HENNEBEL, Committee Expert and country rapporteur, welcomed that the State was open to ratifying the international treaties mentioned. The activities of multinational companies posed challenges to protecting the rights of nomadic peoples. There was a need to investigate weak links in environmental legislation.
A Committee Expert said that Mongolia was the first country in Asia to ratify the Optional Protocol to the Covenant, but the Committee had not dealt with any complaints from Mongolia. Why was that? What measures were in place to raise awareness about the Optional Protocol?
The United Nations Population Fund had noted that the practice of virginity tests was particularly problematic. Why did the State allow guardians or parents to permit such tests? Virginity tests damaged the dignity and autonomy of adolescent girls.
A Committee Expert said that the international treaties that the State had not ratified protected certain segments of the population. How did the geopolitical position of the State prevent it from ratifying those treaties? Foreigners were not mentioned in the periodic report. What was the status of foreigners in Mongolia, and what economic, social and cultural rights did they enjoy?
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said that virginity tests on adolescent girls were completely prohibited. Health care was provided to adolescent girls with the permission of parents. Health care was provided with no discrimination. All foreign citizens enjoyed free health care and free vaccinations during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Mongolia, being positioned between China and the Russian Federation, needed to consider international treaties carefully. The State was planning to localise the United Nations’ guiding principles on business and human rights, and educate businesses on the link between their activities and human rights.
Questions by Committee Experts
A Committee Expert said that Mongolia had made a successful transition to a market economy, but that gave rise to new challenges. What impact had the COVID-19 pandemic had on unemployment? What measures were in place to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the workplace? What policies were in place to promote employment outside the capital city, and to promote employment of persons with disabilities? The Committee took note of progress made on promoting gender equality in the workplace. What support was provided to women to maintain employment after childbirth?
A national action plan on business and human rights would help to implement measures to reduce bribery, corruption and harmful development practices. When would that action plan be adopted? The State party was obligated to regulate the mining industry and the impacts of its activities.
All countries faced economic difficulties due to the COVID-19 pandemic. How many people in Mongolia had fallen below the poverty line due to the pandemic?
Responses by the Delegation
GOMBOSUREN UNURBAYAR, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation, said that the Government had taken measures to support employment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Each person was given 30,000 Mongolian tögrög during the pandemic, and taxes and social insurance payments for citizens were subsidised. Payments for social insurance recipients were increased, and low-interest loans were provided to herders and small- and medium enterprises. The Government had also suspended housing loans and heavily subsidised electricity bills during the pandemic.
Organizations with over 25 staff were required to hire a person with a disability, and were fined a sum equal to all employees’ salaries if they did not do so. Entities that supported employment of persons with disabilities were provided with financial support. There was also a fund supporting women’s employment. The Government was training unemployed persons to prepare them for the labour market. Pensions for senior citizens had been increased. Around 360,000 seniors were paid pensions through the social insurance scheme.
The Committee had previously recommended increasing the number of labour inspectors, and the State had responded by increasing their number from around 30 to over 80. Training was provided on workplace safety, and inspections were conducted each year in high-risk workplaces.
The Government aimed to finish consultations on the national action plan on business and human rights by the end of 2022 and adopt the plan next year.
Questions by Committee Experts
A Committee Expert said that diversification of the economy was vital to ensuring that it was resilient to crises. Data was needed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the economy.
Another Committee Expert said that there was no clear information available about the quality of drinking water. What had been the impact of pollution on water quality? What measures were in place to ensure access to safe water in rural areas?
Was a national programme on treatment for Hepatitis B and C still being operated? What measures were in place to reduce the prevalence of communicable diseases, and improve access to health in rural areas?
There was a lack of information on abortion. In recent years, increasing numbers of teenagers were becoming pregnant. There were barriers to young women accessing reproductive health care. What was the State doing to address that?
LUDOVIC HENNEBEL, Committee Expert and country rapporteur, asked about measures being taken to address rising numbers of cases of domestic violence and rape. Had the State worked to combat negative gender stereotypes? What steps had the State taken to combat human trafficking and to provide support for victims? How was access to drinking water and sanitation regulated? What initiatives had been taken to reduce obesity and to stamp out malnutrition? The budget on health care remained insufficient. What steps had been taken to increase it? Mr. Hennebel said that a lack of individual communications under the Optional Protocol indicated that civil society was not aware of the mechanism.
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said that there was a lack of public awareness regarding the Optional Protocol. That needed to be addressed.
In 2016, 205,000 persons worked in the informal sector, however that number had fallen to 175,000 in 2022. 61 per cent of herders were women. Over half of workers in the real estate sector were women. There was formerly a list of occupations that women could not occupy, but that list had been abolished. Both parents were able to take leave from work after having children. Mothers of children up to three years of age could not work night shifts or for long hours. There was no discrepancy in men’s and women’s salaries. The agricultural sector’s share of total employment had decreased to 20 per cent of the labour force. The Government was working to formalise work across the various sectors.
Since 2020, biological and chemical pollution caused by mining activities had been removed from over 100,000 hectares of land. The Government had established surface water monitoring points and deep-water resource points. Dedicated administrative units were responsible for monitoring water basins. Those units measured pollution in surrounding areas, and met twice a year to discuss methods for improving water quality and reducing pollution. There was a need to release information more actively on water pollution and related legislation to the public. After the law on water pollution was adopted in 2019, water pollution had decreased.
Mongolia consumed 550 million cubic metres of water annually. Herder families used a large percentage of that amount, but were not required to pay water consumption fees or fines for polluting water. During the COVID-19 pandemic, mining and light industry activities had slowed, leading to less water pollution. In 2010, the rate of virus contamination in untreated water was 13 per cent, and that had been lowered to 5 per cent in 2022.
1.3 million people had been screened for communicable diseases under the “Healthy Lives” programme. Under the programme, 5,100 cases of hepatitis had been detected in four months. Several thousand people had received treatment for hepatitis B and C under that programme. There was now 1.1 case of hepatitis per 10,000 people. In 2011, there were 52.8 cases. Hepatitis vaccines had been administered to children starting in 1992. The Ministry of Health had been investigating high-risk services, such as tattoo parlours, for hepatitis. 70 per cent of the cost of medications was covered by State insurance.
Tuberculosis cases had decreased by 33 per cent since 2020, a positive outcome of COVID-19 prevention measures. An international forum on tuberculosis would be held in Mongolia later in 2022. Patients with tuberculosis were provided with treatment in their homes. Funding for tuberculosis treatments and screening programmes had been increased three-fold. Screening programmes also tested for sexually transmitted infections.
The Government had lowered the number of abortions from 17,000 per year to 12,000. To further lower the number of abortions and unwanted pregnancies, the Government was working to make contraception more available. In 2019 and 2020, the Government had increased funding for public and private health care providers, which provided contraception devices. Adolescent cabinets had been established to provide education and training on reproductive health and prevention of unwanted pregnancies.
Studies on food consumption and health had found that obesity was prevalent across all age ranges. To combat that, a law on nutrition for infants and small children had been released. The Government required manufacturers to provide nutritional information on food labels. There was a national strategy to lower the consumption of salt. A law on delivery of food in schools and a law banning certain foods from being sold in the vicinity of secondary schools had been released. A programme on healthy lifestyles was being carried out. Under that programme, public gyms and swimming pools were open free of charge before 8 a.m. One in six Mongolian citizens made use of that programme. The Government was currently collecting statistics on the results of implementation of those programmes.
The Government had worked toward lowering inequality regarding the water supply and sanitation facilities. 99 per cent of urban citizens and 65 per cent of herders were provided with safe drinking water. 59 per cent of rural dwellers had access to sanitation facilities. The Government had started construction of new water supply facilities in 15 provinces in 2022. In Ulaanbaatar, supply of water to wells was being automated. From 2015, renovation of wastewater treatment facilities had been carried out. The Government had provided 3,200 rural families with flushing toilets, and had also linked over 300 rural kindergartens with clean water supplies. It planned to link 700 rural villages with clean water supplies by 2027. Central heating facilities were using drinking water to produce heat, but there were plans to reduce those facilities’ reliance on drinking water. There were also plans to construct a recycling plant.
Questions by Committee Experts
LUDOVIC HENNEBEL, Committee Expert and country rapporteur, asked for information on measures taken to combat the direct and indirect impacts of climate change.
What measures were being taken to combat discrimination against refugees, asylum seekers, stateless persons and non-registered migrants? What measures had the State party taken to facilitate their access to health care and the job market? Legislation prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity. Why had there been no convictions under that law?
Up to 25 per cent of the working population did not have adequate living standards. Why was that? Sexual harassment in businesses and health organizations had increased between 2004 to 2017. Had legislation prohibiting workplace harassment been effective?
Human rights defenders were reportedly prosecuted for collaborating with foreign information services. More than 130 civil society organizations had signed a letter urging the State to put an end to reprisals against human rights defenders. Mr. Hennebel called for more information on that.
In recent years, there had been a substantial increase in alcoholism, depression and suicide among children. Women and girls with disabilities reportedly did not have access to reproductive services, and some were subjected to forced abortions and sterilisation. There were no specific health care services for transgender persons, forcing those people to seek healthcare abroad. What was being done in response to that?
A Committee Expert said that Mongolia had good economic growth in the last 15 years, but the poverty level had not been reduced. What was the reason for that? There was a good level of equality. Was the absence of a poverty reduction programme based on human rights part of the problem?
Another Committee Expert said that the last review of Mongolia had identified gaps in regulation of mining projects. The benefits of such projects were not distributed to the population, and herders lost their livelihood and were forced to move into cities because of those projects. Why did the benefits of mining projects not reach the general population, and what support was provided to herders who were forced to move to cities?
MOHAMED EZZELDIN ABDEL-MONEIM, Committee Chair, said that the gains of the mining sector needed to be reinvested in facilities and services that would benefit the entire population.
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said that the State party had an ambitious plan for tackling climate change. It planned to plant one billion trees across the country. In addition, by 2024, the Government aimed to produce 18 per cent of its energy using solar and wind power. It had also implemented regulations to reduce the use of plastic bags. There were 70 million livestock in the State. The Government was creating intensive farms to reduce the number of livestock and their impact on climate change.
Every person was equal under the Constitution. The State was obliged to provide basic services to all persons regardless of their origin or status. There was no discrimination in terms of access to justice.
GOMBOSUREN UNURBAYAR, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation , said that salaries of public servants had been increased. Teachers, health care workers and scientists’ salaries had been increased by around 50 per cent since 2016.
The Government was working to reduce poverty, but its efforts had been hampered by the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a national programme on reducing poverty and supporting employment. Interventions focused on sectors and regions in which there was high unemployment, supporting people individually to find employment.
Foreign citizens enjoyed equal rights with citizens of Mongolia except in cases stipulated by the law. Migrants, refugees and stateless persons could access health care and State services. Persons who lived in Mongolia long-term received vaccinations.
There were over 200 doctors and nurses specialising in mental health in Mongolia, and over 700 beds in hospitals for mental health patients. Within the primary and secondary school health curricula, there were modules on mental health. 76 mental health practitioners had been placed in primary and secondary schools, and those practitioners received special training on providing mental health support in schools.
Mongolia did not subject its citizens to forced abortions. Abortions were only carried out on a voluntary basis. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex persons could access health services without discrimination. Mongolia could not provide cosmetic or sex change services, so transgender persons needed to go abroad to access that. However, transgender persons could access all basic health care services.
Questions by Committee Experts
A Committee Expert asked about the State party’s progress in ensuring education for persons with disabilities. What progress had the “Establishing a Model Kindergarten” programme made in encouraging inclusive education? What percentage of children with disabilities were not currently enrolled in any form of education? Were there sufficient teachers for children with disabilities in the general education system? Had salaries for teachers of children with disabilities been sufficiently increased? Equity in the quality of education services needed to be improved.
A total of 56 laws to protect cultural heritage had been implemented. Did existing regulations and practices of registration of Mongolian cultural heritage reflect the ethnic diversity of the country? What contributions did foreign investment make toward supporting cultural development and preserving cultural heritage? What were the requirements of laws on foreign investment in the territory of nomadic peoples?
Responses by the Delegation
The delegation said that the model kindergarten programme had so far been implemented in over 100 kindergartens, and would be rolled out in all kindergartens. 70 per cent of children with disabilities were in inclusive education. 3,200 teachers taught children with disabilities in ordinary schools. The State provided training to all teachers to be able to work with children with disabilities. Six development centres for children with disabilities provided educational and psychological support to children with disabilities, as well as support for their parents. International donor projects provided school resources for children with disabilities. Individualised online training modules were provided to over 2,000 children with disabilities.
GOMBOSUREN UNURBAYAR, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation, said teachers were provided with salary increases based on their qualifications, location, hours and season worked, and experience. Teachers, doctors, nurses, social workers and other public servants who worked with children with disabilities received a 20 per cent increase in wages. The Government aimed to continue to construct development centres for children with disabilities in different locations in Mongolia.
The Government had developed rules for registration of cultural heritage under various categories. Foreign companies did business in the cultural area, but were not involved in the protection of cultural heritage.
Questions by Committee Experts
A Committee Expert said that wrestling practiced during the Nadaam Festival was not open to women. Was the State planning to allow women to participate in the wrestling competition at that festival? Children were forced to participate in the horse-riding competition at that festival. Had any measures been taken to protect children participating in that event and prevent forced participation?
Another Committee Expert said that cultural heritage had been affected by the mining industry. Did the mining industry have a robust governance system? The Expert appreciated the State party’s efforts to draft a national action plan on business and human rights. The Expert also called for more information on unionisation and the extent of the negative impact of the mining industry.
LUDOVIC HENNEBEL, Committee Expert and country rapporteur, asked about differences between education in rural and urban areas. What were the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on education in rural areas? Was online education possible in those areas?
LUDOVIC HENNEBEL, Committee Expert and Country Rapporteur, thanked the delegation for participating in the constructive dialogue, which had allowed the Committee to better understand the situation in the State.
GOMBOSUREN UNURBAYAR, State Secretary of the Ministry of Labour and Social Protection, and head of the delegation, thanked the Committee for the dialogue. The delegation had explained how the recommendations of the Committee had been reflected in domestic legislation, the achievements that the State party had made in implementing the provisions of the Covenant, and the challenges faced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The delegation had made thorough notes on the suggestions of Committee Experts, including regarding laws on human rights defenders, implementing the principles of human rights in the business sector, providing protections for immigrants and stateless persons, delivering information to citizens on the complaint mechanism provided for under the Optional Protocol, protecting the rural population from the impacts of the mining industry, and measures to deal with water pollution. The State party would continue to reflect on the Committee’s recommendations in national legislation, and would work further to tackle discrimination through anti-discrimination provisions.
MOHAMED EZZELDIN ABDEL-MONEIM, Committee Chair, thanked the delegation for positively responding to the Committee’s observations. Mr. Abdel-Moneim said that, in spite of its small population, the people and culture of Mongolia were known throughout the world. He wished the State party success in upholding the provisions of the Covenant.
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